We as human enjoy sorting our world to better make sense of it. One of the fastest growing elements of our world happens to be ourselves and one of the most effective methods we use to separate ourselves is based on our lineage. Strangely we seem to have developed the concept of family names independently across the globe with only slight variations in the naming conventions.
With a name like Douglas James Anderson you might be able to guess that much of my heritage comes from Scotland, where they use the comfortable system (for myself) of last name, then middle name, followed by your surname. Traditionally your surname would be your fathers last name and often your middle name would be your grandfather’s first name.
Author naming conventions wikipedia page is on Spanish Naming Customs. In this system can be simplified to a childing retaining both of their parents Surnames.
The aristocratic male Romans used a System involving a surname, a clan name, and a name of your family line with-in the clan.
Many Chinese surnames are from the text Hundred Family Surnames. This book list hundreds of traditional Chinese surnames, all of which are listed on the wikipedia page.
Here is a list of some more different naming systems:
Check it out and see what you can learn.